|Title||Are We Identical Twins, Too?|
|Creator:||Burke, Martha firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Source:||2009 Office of Instruction Staff|
Students will work in collaborative teams to research the study of genetics and predict the genetic variability of two cousins whose parents are both identical twins. The students will receive letters from a local television studio asking them to produce a multimedia presentation for their afternoon talk show, “The Gary Spranger Show.” Parts of their research will include making observations and analyzing the probability of offspring’s genotype after completing various Punnett squares and applying the Mendelian Genetic Laws.
|Entry Event:||Each student team will receive a letter from the local television studio that hosts “The Gary Spranger Show,” an afternoon talk show that presents to the public an unusual problem and provides information to discount misconceptions. This is a very popular program for young adults. In the letter students are asked to provide assistance in the development of an upcoming program. The program will focus on possible genetic outcomes of their children when one set of identical twin males marries female identical twins. The program hopes to answer the question, “Will all of the children resulting from these marriages be identical genetically?” The studio would like to hire our class instead of a local genetic firm to do the research that will provide the answer to this question. Each team is asked to collaborate, research, create and present a multimedia presentation that can be used on the show to explain the possible outcomes of these children. The best presentation made to the evaluation panel will be shown on television.|
|Content Standards & Objectives:||
Know the vocabulary and the relationships between the terms: Mendel, genetics, mitosis, meiosis, Punnett square, hybrid, monohybrid, dihybrid, dominant, recessive, karyotype, pedigree, homologous, heterozygous, homozygous, genotype, phenotype, incomplete dominance, complete dominance, codominance, sex-linked traits and multiple alleles, epitasis, loci, autosome, polygenetic and ratios
Know the history of the development of Mendel’s Genetetics Laws
Know the proper tools to analyze and predict genetic results
Know the examples of Punnett squares, monohybrid, dihybrid crosses and their respective ratios for genotype and phenotype.
Know the examples of sex-linked traits
Create an individual trait chart and compare the chart with members of the class.
Create a simulation of a child’s face with various characteristics inherited by chance.
Identify, describe and explain the difference in inheritance of various traits, polygenetic traits, and sex-linked traits.
Identify, describe and explain the process of inheritance of blood groups and multiple alleles.
Analyze the results of karyotypes and pedigrees.
Analyze the effects that environment can have on genetic inheritance of traits.
Create Punnett squares to determine genotype and phenotype ratios.
Create a graphic organizer to illustrate the flow of genetic characteristics in a given gene pool.
Create and use a multimedia presentation to present data, explain a conclusion and make predictions.
What makes me -- me?
|Assessment and Reflection:||
|Map The Product:||
Students will work in small groups as they research the genetic question “Are they identical twins or can they be different?” They will research, complete labs and gather information to draw conclusions and justify their results.
Product: Multimedia Presentation
Technology teacher for help with presentations and scheduling the computer lab
School nurse on the evaluation team
Science Department Chairperson on the evaluation team
Technology teachers or tech-savvy students may serve as tutors for programs and equipments such as: media programs that might be used to create multimedia presentations
http://techsteps.com biology, genetics section
This online calculator draws Punnett squares and calculates offspring genotype frequencies. Punnett squares can be easily generated for monohybrid, dihybrid http://www.changbioscience.com/genetics/punnett.html
Make a karyotype http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/karyotype/
Karyotype Puzzle with several mutations: During this lesson students are introduced to human karyotyping as a means to diagnose human mutation caused by errors during the formation of zygotes or during the process of meiosis. http://pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu/10th_grade/dawn_new/science/karyotypes.html
Critical friend’s protocol: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/changing_systems/teach_to_student/Friends_Protocol.pdf
Community: These groups could be involved as a resource for information:
local genetics groups, March of Dimes, mothers clubs, women’s clubs, Junior League, Member in the local higher education community who might be interested, students majoring in biology, and mothers of twins.
Note cards (vocabulary)
Computers with internet, word process program, media presentation programs.
Printer (and Ink) for the computers
Projector for presentations
Copies of labs and materials to complete the labs are provided in the attached documents
Vocabulary Card Review: index cards, markers
Word Wall: index cards or oak tag to post words, markers
|Manage the Process:||
This project may take three/four weeks to complete.
ESTABLISH EMOTIONAL SAFETY NORMS:
As the school year begins, protocols for classroom behavior must be established to create a safe environment for students; teachers should model acceptable behaviors. Students should discuss, establish, and enforce norms to provide a safe environment for learning at school and cooperation in the work place.
ESTABLISHING TEAMS AND WORKING AS A TEAM
A Survey of Interests document should be given to students several days before the PBL begins, one would not share the reason for this survey in order to remove any bias from the results. The purpose of the survey is to serve as a tool for the teacher to determine the possibility of similar view points between students and for use to organize teams during the PBL. Ideally four students should be on a team to allow for collaboration and ensure that all students can contribute to the research and final presentation.
Once teams have been organized, students will complete the What Color is a Rainbow form to help determine various roles the students will assume within the group. Students should create a team contract. Give them the Contract Requirements document and examples of contracts- see Sample Contact 1, Sample Contract 2 and Sample Contract 3. Time (one day) should be allowed for students to create, sign, and submit their contracts. Copies of the contracts should be placed in the area of the room called Project Center, and the teacher should keep the originals on file. If there is a question about what to do if someone is not doing their share of the work, students and the teacher should refer to the contract. In the event that someone is “slacking”, has too many absences, is not doing his/her share, etc., the students may request an intervention. The student-created contract will determine any actions that could occur; however, contracts must include a clause that provides for probationary time. Before anyone can be fired from a team, conditions for dismissal from a team must be stipulated and outlined in the contract. Because all work created for a team is proprietary, students who are fired will have to abandon any work they have accomplished. They will have to start over on the PBL.
A Collaboration Rubric is used to record student group work efforts and abilities. Two copies of the rubric should be given to the students at the beginning of the PBL. They are to keep one for themselves (in a safe place, referring to it as needed) and complete the proper heading on the top of the other and return it to the teacher. This rubric would be used frequently for the teacher to get periodic views of the students engaged in group work. Students who refuse to be a member of a team lose the option of earning collaboration points.
Each student team will receive a letter from the local television studio that hosts “The Gary Spranger Show,” an afternoon talk show that presents to the public an unusual problem and provides information to discount misconceptions. This is a very popular program for young adults. In the letter students are asked to provide assistance in the development of an upcoming program. The program will focus on possible genetic outcomes of their children when one set of identical twin males marries female identical twins. The program hopes to answer the question, “Will all of the children resulting from these marriages be identical genetically?” The studio would like to hire our class instead of a local genetic firm to do the research that will provide the answer to this question. Each team is asked to collaborate, research, create and present a multimedia presentation that can be used on the show to explain the possible outcomes of these children. The best presentation made to the evaluation panel will be shown on television.
(Note- No real names have been used for organizations represented in the PBL. The organization name has been created and is not meant to represent actual organization.)
The Content Presentation Rubric and the Presentation Rubric should be given to students when the assignment is given to guide their work throughout the PBL. They will not be scored until the presentation is given at the end of the experience. The Content Presentation Rubric focuses on the science behind the PBL and should be scored by people with science backgrounds and local higher education community. The Presentation Rubric focuses on physical attributes of the speaker, oral and verbal skills, organization and structure of the presentation, and appropriate use of technical aspects of the multimedia.
Four documents must be maintained by team members weekly, Time Management Log, Individual Activity Log, Group Activity Log, and the Task Log for the group. Points will be provided for successful completion of these logs. These are designed to help the team focus on organization, goals to reach the end product and completion of all portions of the PBL. Copies of these must be kept in the team folder that is housed at the Project Center.
Creation of a Project Center allows the student teams to work independently as they move through the PBL. When students have questions about resources, the teacher can give the students the finger point to the project center to project packets. Students need to be made aware of this center and what materials can be found in the folders. Each team should have their own folder to keep in the Project Center. I have found that envelope folders work well for this task.
Project packet should contain:
Entry event documents
Calendar or checklist of assignments (due dates and points)
Presentation schedule for practice and final
Sample contracts and templates
Story board for presentation
ASSESSING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
Introduce the “Know – Need to Know” document. Post a large version to which the entire class can refer, but also have each group keep its own Know – Need to Know document so they can help each other or seek assistance from outside their group. Periodically throughout the PBL, bring the whole class together to update the class version of the Know-Need to Know chart. Use these discussions to guide instruction.
Science Notebooks will be used to record observations and data throughout the process. Required entries for the Science Notebook are listed on the Science Notebook Checklist which should be given to the students when the notebooks are started.
Several articles about using science notebooks as a teaching strategy are available on the National Science Teachers Association’s website (http://nsta.org). The articles listed below are free to NSTA members and are 99¢ for non-members.
Five Good Reasons to Use Science Notebooks by Joan Gilbert and Marleen Kotelman
Integrating Interactive Notebooks by Cheryl Waldman and Kent J. Crippen
Science Sampler: Science interactive notebooks in the classroom by Maida A. Finch
Student Centered Notebooks by Lori Fulton and Brian Campbell
Using Interactive Science Notebooks for Inquiry-Based Science by Robert Chesbro
Vocabulary development will occur throughout the PBL. Descriptions of activities have been included.
A Word Wall will be created in the classroom and the teacher should model using the Word Wall as new terms are introduced during the lesson. Index cards and markers can be used to post the new terms on the Word Wall. Take time to discuss the meanings of the new words and give students an opportunity to put ideas into their own words.
Vocabulary Cards will be used to review vocabulary terms and to record individually definitions, visual representations, and association of the terms to concrete items. Students will maintain these cards on an O ring that allows them to review words and make associations at any time.
Vocabulary will be recorded in alpha boxes at the end of the notebook. Students will add words as they are exposed to new vocabulary.
RESEARCH ON GREGOR MENDEL
Students would be allowed to research Mendelian Genetics. What are the laws and how do they apply to this PBL?
During this lab students will map their own phenotypic genetic characteristics. Students will then compare their unique map with the class members’ and relate these to their placement on a Punnett square. Each student will need charts A and B and the directions. This lab is mapping dominant and recessive traits commonly found in humans. Teacher will need PTC paper to test the students for the ability to taste PTC (students should be given this in small quantities). All students will need a pencil. Students will record in their Science Notebook.
This is a fun lab; students will simulate the creation of an offspring whose traits are determined by chance. All parents are heterozygous for every trait; determination of inherited traits can be made with the flipping of pennies or by using chromosome simulations. Students are then asked to draw their “child” and answer a series of questions about the lab. Students would write a 2 + 2 at the conclusion of the lab (two things learned and two things they still have questions about). This would be recorded in their notebooks and drawings posted in the classroom. Lab Rubric for Identical Twins would be used with this activity
This lab is available on line.
Baby Face Lab with karyotype
Students need the experience of word problems for genetic determination and the experience of completing Punnett squares: monohybrid and dihybrid. You might want to print off the sheet with tips for working problems for support. These are available on the Teach 21 web site at:
Students will visit the site and determine blood groupings.
You can also download a video, Why, Tell me Why! Blood type! from you tube on blood groupings. This is a very good and short video explaining blood grouping heredity. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzNGQnUlrDA&feature=related
KARYOTYPE and PEDIGREES
Pedigrees of colorblindness
A Story Board for the multimedia presentation will be created on the template provided. Students will place a thumbnail or a hand-drawn image in the space provided on the template as they organize information gathered during the PBL process. They will provide a description or sample of the text/quote/chart in the space provided, including who will be presenting information for each slide. The story board will be due the Friday before the week of presentations.
Each team has the opportunity of gain bonus points during the pbl process for leadership and work ethic. Teams must decide which members get the bonus points.
PEER REVIEW AND PRACTICE PRESENTATIONS
A couple days prior to the final presentations, each team will do a practice presentation in front of their peers; the date for the practice will be on the calendar well in advance, so teams must be ready to present. Students will watch other teams present and participate in the Critical Friends peer review. They will be reminded of the rubric they were given at the beginning of the assignment, and their comments about the other teams’ presentations should reflect their own understanding of the criteria on the rubric. Following the peer review, student will complete the Practice Presentation Self Evaluation for Identical Twins. Then teams may incorporate ideas and suggestions from this peer review into their final presentations. The time remaining should be spent fine tuning and practicing for the presentation. No major changes should be made at this time. All final presentations are due the Friday before presentations are given.
During this process the students and teacher will reflect on the teaching and learning that occurred during the PBL process. Using the attached document (Self Reflection) students will reflect on the learning process and evaluate their experience.
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